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شیمی - عنصر ید Iodine
شنبه 15 بهمن 1390

عنصر ید Iodine

   نوشته شده توسط: رامتین اسحاق زاده    نوع مطلب :عناصر ،

ید عنصری عیر فلزی جامد به رنگ تیره ـ مایل به آبی و درخشان با ساختار ارتو رومبیک است . این عنصر در سال 1811 توسط Bernard Courtois شیمیست فرانسوی کشف گردید . این عنصر در دریا و زمین در ترکیبات سدیم و پتاسیم وجود دارد . ید دارای شکلهای ترکیبی زیاد با عناصر است،اما میل واکنشی کمتری از هالوژنهای دیگر دارد .
ید خصوصیاتی مانند بعضی فلزات دارد .در کلروفرم ،تتراکلرید کربن یا دی سولفید کربن حل می شود و به شکل محلول زرشکی زیبایی در می آید .ولی فقط کمی در آب محلول است . ترکیبات ید مهم در شیمی آلی و خیلی سودمند در علم پزشکی و عکاسی است.


ید در لغت به معنای بنفش می باشد. ید هالوژن در آب دریا در نهشته های قدیمی آب دریا و در آبهای شور از چاههای نفت و نمک نیز وجود دارد.
ید با خلوص زیاد توسط واکنش یدید پتاسیم با سولفات مس یافت می شود. چندین روش مختلف برای جداسازی عنصر ید شناخته شده است.
این عنصر در دمای معمولی اتاق به صورت گاز به رنگ آبی – بنفش می باشد که دارای بوی زننده ای است. این عنصر گاهی اوقات خصوصیات غیر فلزی را نیز از خود عبور می دهد. این عنصر به آسانی در ترکیبات کلروفرم، تترا کلیرد کربن، دی سولفید کربن حل می شود و به رنگ ارغوانی در می آید. این عنصر به مقدار کمی در آب حل می شود.
حدود 30 ایزوتوپ از این عنصر شناخته شده است. فقط یک ایزوتوپ پایدار در طبیعت در سال 1271 شناخته شده است. حدود 131 ایزوتوپ رادیواکتیو ید به صورت مصنوعی ساخته شده است. نیمه عمر این عنصر 8 روز است و درعملکرد غده تیروئید کاربرد دارد. از مهمترین ترکیبات ید یدی سدیم و یدید پتاسیم و KIO3 است. کمبود ید در انسان باعث بیماری گواتر می شود.
تیروکسین و اسید هیدرویدیک که از ترکیبات ید هستند در علم پزشکی و و محلول یدید پتاسیم و الکل برای جراحات خارجی کاربرد دارد. یدید پتاسیم در عکاسی نیز کاربرد دارد .
در موقع استفاده از این عنصر باید دقت لازم را به عمل آورد چون این عنصر در اثر تماس با پوست دست موجب جراحات می شود . گاز ید باعث سوزش چشم و غشا مخاطی می شود.
حداکثر غلظت مجاز ید در هوا باید از 1 mg/m3 تجاوز نکند.




عنصر ید در طبیعت



اثرات ید بر روی سلامتی
ید به کلیه انواع نمک افزوده می شود. ید یکی از ترکیبات اصلی نان، ماهیهای دریا و گیاهان اقیانوسی است. ید به طور طبیعی در اقیانوس وجود دارد و بعضی از ماهیهای دریا و گیاهان آبزی آن را به طور طبیعی درون خود ذخیره می کنند.
بسیاری از داروها و شفاف کننده های پوست حاوی ید هستند. به علاوه بد یکی از ترکیبات اصلی قرصهای تصفیه آب است که در تهیه آب آشامیدنی به کار می رود.
ید، سازنده هورمون تیرویید است که برای رشد، سیستم عصبی و متابولیسم ضروری است. افرادی که کم نان می خورند یا اصلا نان نمی خورند دچار کمبود ید می شوند. در نتیجه عملکرد غده تیرویید کند شده و غده تیرویید متورم می شود. این بیماری گواتر نامیده می شود. در شرایط فعلی و با افزودن اندکی ید به نمک خوراکی ، این بیماری به ندرت به وجود می آید. مقدار زیاد ید خطرناک است زیرا غده تیرویید بیش از حد فعالیت خواهد کرد. این عارضه بر روی کل بدن اثر می گذارد وضربان قلب را نامنظم کرده و باعث کاهش وزن می شود.
عنصر ید، I2، سمی است و بخار آن چشم و ریه را می سوزاند. بیشینه مجازغلظت ید موجود در هوا، 1 میلی گرم در مترمکعب است. مصرف بیش از اندازه ید، سمی است.
ید 131 یکی از رادیونوکلیدهایی است که در آزمایش بمبهای اتمی به وجود می آید که این آزمایشها در سال 1945 با آزمایش ایالات متحده آغاز شدند و در سال 1980 با آزمایش چین خاتمه یافتند. ید 131، جزء رادیونوکلیدهای دارای عمر طولانی است و تولید و تداوم تولید آن خطر سرطان را افزایش داده است. ید 131، خطر سرطان و دیگر بیماریهای تیروئید و بیماریهایی که در اثر کمبود هورمون تیروئید ایجاد می شوند را افزایش می دهد.


اثرات زیست محیطی ید
ید به طور طبیعی در هوا، آب و خاک وجود دارد. مهمترین منبع ید طبیعی، اقیانوس است. ید موجود در هوا می تواند با ذرات آب ترکیب شده و در آب یا خاک ته نشست کند. ید موجود در خاکها با مواد آلی ترکیب شده و مدتی طولانی در همان مکان باقی می ماند. گیاهانی که در این خاکها رشد می کنند، این ید را جذب می کنند. گاوها و جانوران دیگر، با خوردن این گیاهان ید را جذب می کنند.
ید موجود در آب سطحی تبخیر شده و مجددا وارد هوا می شود. انسان نیز با سوزاندن ذغالسنگ یا نفت برای تامین انرژی، ید را وارد هوا می کند. اما مقدار یدی که در اثر فعالیتهای بشری وارد هوا می شود، در مقایسه با مقدار یدی که به واسطه تبخیر از اقیانوسها وارد هوا می شود، بسیار کم است.
ممکن است ید رادیواکتیو باشد. ایزوتوپهای رادیواکتیو ید، به طور طبیعی و در اثر واکنشهای شیمیایی در جو تشکیل می شوند. قسمت عمده ایزوتوپهای رادیواکتیو ید، نیمه عمر بسیار کوتاهی دارند و به سرعت به ترکیبات ید پایدار تبدیل می شوند. اما نیمه عمر یکی از اشکال رادیواکتیو ید، میلیونها سال است و برای محیط زیست بسیار مضر می باشد. این ایزوتوپ، به وسیله دستگاههای هسته ای وارد جو می شود و در طی فرآوری اورانیوم و پلوتونیوم تشکیل می شود. وقوع حادثه در دستگاههای هسته ای باعث انتشار مقدار زیادی ید رادیواکتیو به هوا می شود.

تجهیزات آزمایشگاهی مورد استفاده در تجزیه
اسپکترومتر جرمی ، میکروسکوپ ، کرماتوگرافی مایع و گازی ، اشعه x ، جذب اتمی ، مادون قرمز ، کروماتوگرافی مایع با عملکرد بالا و اسپکترومتر نشری


خواص فیزیکی و شیمیایی عنصر ید :
عدد اتمی: 53
جرم اتمی: 126.90447
نقطه ذوب : C° 113.5
نقطه جوش : C° 185.4
شعاع اتمی : Å 1.32
ظرفیت: 1,5,7
رنگ: بنفش-خاکستری تیره شفاف
حالت استاندارد: جامد
نام گروه: 17
انرژی یونیزاسیون : Kj/mol 1008.4
شکل الکترونی: 4d105s25p5
شعاع یونی : Å: 2.2
الکترونگاتیوی: 2.66
حالت اکسیداسیون: ±1,5,7
دانسیته: 4.940
گرمای فروپاشی : Kj/mol 7.824
گرمای تبخیر : Kj/mol 20.752
مقاومت الکتریکی : Ohm m 1.3×107
گرمای ویژه: J/g Ko 0.214
دوره تناوبی:5

درجه اشتعال : در حالت جامد غیر قابل اشتعال
شماره سطح انرژی : 5
اولین انرژی : 2
دومین انرژی : 8
سومین انرژی : 18
چهارمین انرژی : 18
پنجمین انرژی : 7
ایزوتوپ :
ایزوتوپ نیمه عمر
I-122 3.6 دقیقه
I-123 13.2 ساعت
I-124 4.2 روز
I-125 60.1 روز
I-126 13.0 روز
I-127 پایدار
I-128 25.0 دقیقه
I-129 1.57E7 سال
I-130 12.4 ساعت
I-131 8.0 روز
I-132 2.3 ساعت
I-133 20.8 ساعت
I-134 52.6 دقیقه
I-135 6.6 ساعت
I-136 1.4 دقیقه

اشکال دیگر :
هیدرید ید HI
پنتا اکسید دی ید I2O5 و تترا اکسید دی ید I2O4
کلرید ید ICl و تری کلرید ید ICl3

منابع : ترکیب سدیم و پتاسیم و آب شور
کاربرد : مقدار کم آن برای سلامتی انسانها لازم است ، در گذشته به عنوان ضد عفونی کننده بکار می رفت اما ثابت شد که به مرور زمان سمی می شود .


برچسب ها: ید ،

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جمعه 1 شهریور 1398 10:54
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پنجشنبه 30 خرداد 1398 23:51
We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park
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They're handsome. Brown hair slicked back, glasses which fit his face, hazel eyes and
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of one another speaking about us, what we would like money, what we're looking for on another person. He starts telling me that they have been rejected a
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‘Why Andrew? You're so handsome. I'd never reject you ', I have faith that He smiles at me, biting
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‘Oh, I can't know. Everything happens for a good reason right.
But inform me, make use of reject me, do you Ana?' He said.


‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, you wouldn't mind if I kissed you right now?' he was quoted saying as I get nearer to him and kiss him.

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‘I enjoy how we think.' , he said.

In the meantime, I start scrubbing my rearfoot in her leg, massaging it slowly. ‘What can you like in women? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

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شنبه 28 اردیبهشت 1398 07:44
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"And then we could have an ending that will be as none before."

His smile was decadent, his eyes were loaded with lust,
as well as soft skin of his hard cock against my
sex was having its intended effect. I was feeling
a stronger arousal now as I felt his cock slide between my sensitive lips.
I felt the pinnacle of his cock push agonizingly at the doorway of my pussy, and I needed him to thrust into me hard.
Instead he retracted and slid his hardness back up to my clit.


I became aching to have him inside, and I can tell that his ought to push that wonderful hard cock inside me was
growing. His moans grew to fit mine, and I knew the opinion of my wet pussy lips on the
head of his cock was getting a lot for both of us.

"Allow finale begin," he was quoted saying, anf the husband slid the end of his cock inside me.


We both gasped when he held his cock there for the moment.
I contracted my pussy to drag him further inside, and he threw his head back for the sensation. Inch by excruciating inch
he pushed his cock inside me, and each time I squeezed my pussy around him.
His cock felt wonderful since it filled me, but I needed it inside me.
I rolled sideways and rested my leg against his shoulder, anf the
husband plunged his cock all the way in.
לופטים בירושלים
پنجشنبه 26 اردیبهشت 1398 16:20
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پنجشنبه 26 اردیبهشت 1398 15:13
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پنجشنبه 26 اردیبهشت 1398 13:51
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پنجشنبه 26 اردیبهشت 1398 06:31
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crescimento peniano
چهارشنبه 25 اردیبهشت 1398 22:23
Hi there just wanted to give you a brief heads up and let you know
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לופטים בחיפה
دوشنبه 23 اردیبهشت 1398 21:25
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